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Other publications on LIFE

This page provides a selection of publications that are of particular relevance to the LIFE programme. These have been published by the EU and national authorities, environmental networks and other sources.

Research Article

Arguments for biodiversity conservation in Natura 2000 sites: An analysis based on LIFE projects

Arguments for biodiversity conservation in Natura 2000 sites: An analysis based on LIFE projects

Angelika Müller and Joachim Maes of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) have analysed 365 projects on the LIFE Nature projects database, to investigate the most effective means of persuading stakeholders about the value of nature restoration projects. 26 pages (2015)

Entitled, Arguments for biodiversity conservation in Natura 2000 sites: An analysis based on LIFE projects, the paper was published on 24 August 2015 in the journal Nature Conservation. The researchers also conducted in-depth interviews with 14 LIFE Nature project managers for the study, which was conducted within the framework of the EU-funded BESAFE project.

The case for biodiversity conservation can be made using instrumental and non-instrumental arguments. Instrumental arguments focus on economic and social factors, while non-instrumental arguments stress the inherent value of biodiversity and its role in human well-being. Stakeholder groups responded differently to the different types of argument. For example, economic arguments were particularly effective for stakeholders with commercial interests such as landowners and farmers, while ethical and other non-instrumental arguments were most effective with non-commercial stakeholders such as the general public. An analysis of argument types in LIFE project premise statements showed that arguments based on the intrinsic value of nature were the ones most frequently used. The authors concluded that a good mix of both instrumental and non-instrumental arguments was the best approach for making a case for nature conservation.



Il programma LIFE+ e la Rete Rurale Nazionale

Il programma LIFE+ e la Rete Rurale Nazionale

Un momento di confronto e di approfondimento delle priorità ambientali delle politiche di sviluppo rurale attraverso i progetti LIFE+, 192 pages (2012)








I Fogli dell' Orso n°25

I Fogli dell' Orso n°25

30 pages (2011)

This PDF brochure, published by the Parco Naturale Adamello Brenta, is entirely dedicated to the Brown Bear.

Read the latest news on the conservation status of the Brown Bear in Italy, on the impact of 18 years of LIFE funding, interviews with stakeholders, the financial value of Bears or other news from related projects such as LIFE project ARCTOS - Brown Bear Conservation: coordinated actions for the Alpine and the Apennines range (LIFE09 NAT/IT/000160).

Download: I Fogli dell' Orso n°25
pdf(~2,5 MB)


Il successo del Programma LIFE Ambiente in Italia: esempi di soluzioni innovative replicabili a livello nazionale

LIFE Ambiente in Italia

The success of the LIFE Environment Programme in Italy: examples of innovative solutions replicated at national level , 187 pages (2010)

This book, published by the Italian Focal Point of LIFE of the Ministry of the Environment, and the protection of Land and Sea provides an overview of all Italian LIFE Environment projects in the period 2000-2006.

The first section of the publication summarises what the LIFE Environment programme does, outlines the results obtained by LIFE Environment in Italy, explains the role of the National Contact Point, highlights Italian LIFE Environment projects that have been awarded 'Best' project status by the European Commission and introduces LIFE+. Section two provides a two-page summary of all completed and approved Italian LIFE Environment projects; Section three details those projects that were awaiting assessment of their final reports at the time of publication.

Finally, section four provides a handy list of all the Italian LIFE Environment projects mentioned in the brochure.


Natura 2000 in Germany: Nature’s jewels

Natura 2000: Biodiversity

Natura 2000 in Germany: Nature’s jewels, Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit , 76 pages (2008)

This brochure, published by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, is designed to promote awareness of the unique natural and cultural landscape of Germany and to explain the concept of Natura 2000 and the goals of nature conservation in the European Union. It includes examples of projects relating to the implementation of the Natura 2000 network, including three projects funded by the LIFE programme. The brochure is targeted at the general public, policy and economic decision makers, as well as landowners, farmers, foresters and other relevant stakeholders.


LIFE-Natur: Eine Erfolgsgeschichte für den Natur- und Gewässerschutz in Österreich

Natura 2000: Biodiversity

LIFE-Nature: Nature and water protection success stories from Austria, Austrian Ministry of the Environment, 2006 - 48 pages

This brochure provides an overview of LIFE-Nature projects in Austria. It includes summaries of 33 projects covering flora and fauna protection, rivers and lakes, wetlands, forests and dry grasslands. For each project, the brochure gives a brief overview, accompanied by details of the location, the beneficiary and the project financing. Published in German only. A double DVD is also available. For more information, contact Gerhard Sigmund-Schwach at the Austrian Ministry of the Interior, email: gerhard.sigmund-schwach@lebensministerium.at


Ympäristön Life Suomessa. EU:n rahoitustuki ympäristönsuojelulle

Ympäristön Life Suomessa. EU:n rahoitustuki ympäristönsuojelulle

LIFE Environment in Finland, 2006 - 127 pages

Since 1995, the EU Financial Instrument for the Environment (LIFE) has provided financial support for 50 projects in Finland, contributing to the development, updating and implementation of the Community environmental policy.

In this publication, by the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, the 50 Finnish LIFE-Environment projects are presented. Classed by their thematic sectors, the background, aims, actions and results of the projects are presented in project descriptions. The practical experiences of the project leaders are conveyed in six case studies.


Le programme européen LIFE-Environment bilan de son application en France - présentation de 112 projets français

Le programme européen LIFE-Environment bilan de son application en France

Impact of the LIFE-Environment European programme in France – presentation of 112 French projects, ENVIROPEA, May 2007 - 148 pages

This publication shows how the LIFE programme works in France, sets out a global overview of the quantitative and qualitative impact of LIFE in Europe and in France and presents the details of 113 French LIFE-Environment projects. Published by the association ENVIROPEA on behalf of the French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development. Published in French only.

Contribution de l’Instrument LIFE Nature à la protection des oiseaux en France

Contribution de l’Instrument LIFE Nature à la protection des oiseaux en France

Contribution of the LIFE-Nature instrument to the protection of birds in France, Ligue pour la Protection des Oiseaux, June 2002 - 41 pages

This publication is an extensive document on the contribution of the LIFE Programme to bird protection in France. It shows a summary of the results of several successful projects. Published in French only.


LIFE projects in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

LIFE projects in Baden-Württemberg

Naturschutz-Info 3/2007- 1/2008: Schwerpunktthema: LIFE Projekte in Baden-Württemberg, Landesanstalt für Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Württemberg - 124 pages

The latest edition of the newsletter "Naturschutz Info" looks at the impact of LIFE in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg. A short history of the LIFE programme is followed by articles highlighting both the LIFE Nature and the LIFE+ Nature and Biodiversity strands. The publication also features short descriptions of all LIFE Nature projects implemented in Baden-Württemberg.


Il bilancio di LIFE-Natura in Italia - Indicazioni e prospettive per il futuro

Il bilancio di LIFE-Natura in Italia

The results of LIFE Nature in Italy – suggestions for the future and outlooks, Italian Ministry of the Environment - 224 pages

This report presents the results of the 151 LIFE Nature projects approved in Italy between 1992 and 2005. The total budget of the Italian LIFE Nature projects covered by the report amounts to 133 millions euros (of which almost 55 percent has been contributed by the European Community). 52 percent of the total has been spent for in-field interventions. LIFE-Nature projects have covered 21 percent of Italy's Natura 2000 sites and 75 percent of the projects have related to protected areas (parks and reserves). Published in Italian only. Further details can also be obtained from the Italian Ministry of the Environment, email: dpn-lifenatura@minambiente.it.

The Netherlands

15 jaar LIFE-Natuur in Nederland

15 jaar LIFE-Natuur in Nederland

15 years of LIFE-Nature: Europe’s contribution to Natura 2000 in the Netherlands, December 2006 - 44 pages

This brochure of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality examines and celebrates the impact of LIFE-Nature projects in the Netherlands over the past 15 years.

The report explains the use of EU funds in nature conservation through LIFE-Nature and examines the particular Dutch participation in and experience with this work. It sets out how LIFE-Nature has contributed nearly €30 million to 22 Dutch projects costing a total of 68 million; a further six projects also involved actions in the Netherlands but were part of larger international projects.

Leven met water, 49 waterprojecten in Nederland binnen LIFE-Milieu (1992-2006)

Natura 2000: Biodiversity

Living with water, 49 water projects in the Netherlands within the context of LIFE-Environment (1992-2006), SenterNovem, August 2006 - 52 pages

This is a compilation of 49 water-related LIFE-Environment projects carried out in the Netherlands since 1992. The projects are organised into a number of themes: wastewater, groundwater, water and green, drinking water and industrial water-supply, maritime, and water management. For each project, an overview and weblinks are given. Published by SenterNovem. Published in English and Dutch.


20 years of projects in Slovenia

20 years of project in Slovenia

Projects in Slovenia – 20 years of the LIFE European fi nancial programme, May 2012. Issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and the Environment - 36 pages

This 20 years special edition gives an overview of how numerous LIFE projects have supported important aspects of protecting nature in Slovenia, the preservation of traditional land-use and of rare plant varieties and animal species.

Download: 20 years of projects in Slovenia
pdf(~3.8 MB)

LIFE III Narava v Sloveniji

LIFE III Narvara v Sloveniji

LIFE III Nature in Slovenia, October 2007, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning - 156 pages

LIFE III has contributed to the integration of Slovenia into the European Union in the field of nature conservation. This report gives a detailed overview of the importance of LIFE III for Slovenia, and of the implementation and monitoring of Slovenian LIFE projects. The main body of the publication gives a detailed presentation of the 11 Slovenian LIFE-Nature projects. The report is published in Slovenian with abstracts in English.

Download: LIFE III Narava v Sloveniji
pdf(~5.8 MB)


Catálogo de buenas prácticas para la gestión del hábitat en Red Natura 2000: bosque y matorral mediterráneos

Programa LIFE-Medio Ambiente de la Unión Europea

Guidelines of good practices in Mediterranean estates included in Natura 2000 - 2007.

Experience gained in field management in three Spanish LIFE-Nature projects has been compiled in a useful handbook.

The guidelines have been published as part of the dissemination activities of “Conservation of the Spanish Imperial Eagle, Black Vulture, Black Stork” (LIFE03 NAT/E/000050). The aim of this LIFE-Nature project, a continuation of LIFE99 NAT/E/6336, was to propose and support a new type of habitat management in Natura 2000 sites in the Mediterranean region, proving that it is possible to combine conservation of threatened species with traditional and profitable estate management.

Programa LIFE-Medio Ambiente de la Unión Europea - Acciones financiadas en España

Programa LIFE-Medio Ambiente de la Unión Europea

Programme LIFE-Environment of the European Union – Actions financed in Spain, Spanish Ministry of Environment, 2003 - 220 pages

This publication presents the results of innovative LIFE-Environment projects from 1997-1999. Also included is a list of environmental protection projects selected for funding in 2000-2004. Published in Spanish and English.
To obtain a hard copy, contact: life@pcrconsultoria.com

Nature conservation good practice website

Natura 2000: Biodiversity

European Commission, 2006

The "Good practices in managing Natura 2000 sites" website presents twenty-five practical examples of successful management practices and solutions covering five different sectors: farming, forests, rivers, marine, wetlands. These have been taken from projects funded under LIFE-Nature. The website can be accessed via the European Commission DG Environment Nature page. An explanatory leaflet is also available.


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